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A quantum mechanical effect, tunnelling is the mechanism by which electrons can cross a barrier they are not "supposed to." Think of it like you facing a thin waterfall: it is a barrier, but you can go through it. More scientifically, tunnelling happens because, at the atomic level, things can be waves and particles at the same time: when an electron tunnels through a barrier, it is acting like a wave.
Electromigration is the result of momentum transfer from electrons moving in an electric field to the ions in the interconnect material. Electromigration can lead to the electrical failure of interconnects.
Resistivity is the measure of how strongly a material opposes the movement of electrical charge through it. If two objects of identical dimensions have different resistivities, the object with the higher resistivity will have a higher resistance.
A dielectric is simply an insulator-usually employed as an insulating medium between conductors.
This constant is the ratio of the charge-holding capacity of a condenser made with a certain dielectric material to the capacity of the same condenser with air as the dielectric. (see Dielectric)