In 1997, Galileo flew through a geyser erupting from Europa, a Moon of Jupiter. Hubble spotted a few hazy pixels that were not there previously, which could be interpreted as jets of water in 2012 and 2016. It was only after these observations, that the astronomers figured out that Galileo had passed through the region of the geyser, and went back to scan the old data. Despite all these observations, there is only evidence that there are geysers on Europa, but it is not considered a confirmed fact. That is just the way science works. While gathering direct evidence of life on exoplanets is incredibly difficult, we might have such a breakthrough after the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope. Meanwhile, other approaches use statistics, modelling and theoretical approaches to finding evidence of alien life. When extraterrestrial life is finally confirmed, it will be the end result of many, many scientific papers that point towards that ultimate conclusion, and here are a few of them.
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